Lima COP20 | CMP 10 / COP20’s Results / 1. “THE LIMA CALL FOR CLIMATE ACTION”

1. “THE LIMA CALL FOR CLIMATE ACTION”

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COP20-CMP10 closed successfully thanks to the so called “Lima call for Climate Action,” a document that strengthens the climate negotiation process on its road to COP21 in Paris.

The Lima document strikes the balance in what regards accelerating climate action and achieving the common objective of not exceeding 2 degrees of temperature above pre-industrial levels.

Achievements of the “Lima Call for Climate Action:”

A. ANNEXES OF THE TEXT TO BE NEGOTIATED

The Lima decision, in its annex, marked a milestone on the road to Paris. For the first time a negotiation draft was approved that incorporated and acknowledged progress made to date and included elements that will be the base of the new agreement to be adopted at COP21. So much so, that the negotiation text was approved based upon said document two months after COP20, during ADP negotiations in Geneva. Formerly, progress in negotiations towards the new agreement was expressed in documents that did not count with unanimous approval by all parties and hence lacked official character.

5. It acknowledges progress made in Lima regarding the preparation of a negotiation draft with elements in the annex.

B. COMMON BUT DIFFERENTIATED RESPONSIBILITIES AND RESPECTIVE CAPABILITIES

This principle, established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), defines the commitment in reducing greenhouse gases by all countries parties to the Convention according to their responsibility. However, along different negotiations, there have been different implications and interpretation of said principles, which have caused discrepancies between developed and developing countries, particularly the so called “emerging economies.” Again, COP20 was able to utterly acknowledge this principle after very long time and, at the same time, it opens the door to progress in negotiations by adding a flexibility element, because it acknowledges that the common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities shall be considered under the light of different national circumstances.

3. It underscores its commitment of reaching an ambitious agreement in 2015 that reflects the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, taking into account the different national circumstances.

C. INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTIONS

As a condition for COP20 to be successful, countries will submit the so called Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (iNDCs), that is, their plans concerning mitigation and, if they so deem, adaptation.
The Lima Call for Climate Action pointed out the kind of information iNDCs must contain and specified that its scope encompasses both mitigation and adaptation, according to what is appropriate for each party.
Likewise, the Lima draft established the preparation of a report that would allow for an evaluation of the aggregate effect of iNDCs submitted until October first 2015. Thus, the level of ambition that will be necessary to not exceed the two-degree threshold in global warming will be known in more detail.

9. It reiterates its invitation to each one of the parties so they communicate their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions to the Secretariat to attain the Convention’s objective, as expressed in its article 2;

12. It invites all parties to consider the possibility of communicating their initiatives concerning adaptation planning, or the possibility of including an adaptation component in their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions;

13. It reiterates its invitation to all parties so they communicate their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions sufficiently early before the 21st period of sessions of the Conference of the Parties (during the first quarter of 2015, in the case of parties that can do so), in such a way as to facilitate clarity, transparency and understanding of these contributions;

14. It agreed that the information to be provided by the parties who communicate their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions may include, among other things, as corresponds, quantifiable information on the reference point (setting a base year, when it so corresponds), terms and/or application periods, scope and coverage, planning processes, assumptions and methodological approaches, including those aimed at estimating and counting emissions and, if such is the case, anthropogenic absorptions of greenhouse gases, as well as an indication of the reasons why they consider that their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions are fair and ambitious, in the light of their respective national circumstances and how they contribute to reaching the Convention’s objective as expressed in its article 2. Such information will facilitate clarity, transparency and understanding;

D. ACTIONS BEFORE 2020

The Lima decision established mechanisms to increase the ambition and reduce greenhouse gas emissions before 2020, considering that date as the start of effectiveness of the agreement to be signed in Paris in 2015. Expert technical meetings to explore options with a high mitigation potential, preparation of reports and improvement of documents are among the tools to be used.

E. CLIMATE FUNDING

The urgency for developed countries to financially support developing countries was pointed out. For the first time, the complementary support of other countries party to the Convention was acknowledged. This element is important for developing countries and acceptable for developed countries, because the responsibility of funding still lies with developed countries.
Similarly, the work done by different funds and institutions under the Convention became strengthened and guidelines were established to mobilize long-term financial resources, as well as to monitor and report on them.
Finally, the Green Fund exceeded the initial target of US$10 billion, reaching US$10.2 billion at COP20.

4. It urges developed country parties to contribute and mobilize more financial support aimed at developing country parties, particularly those vulnerable to adverse climate change effects, so that they can apply ambitious mitigation and adaptation measures. It acknowledges the complementary support given by other parties.